- Research Article
- Open Access
Regional geochemical baseline concentration of potentially toxic trace metals in the mineralized Lom Basin, East Cameroon: a tool for contamination assessment
© The Author(s) 2018
Received: 15 December 2017
Accepted: 23 April 2018
Published: 2 May 2018
The distribution of trace metals in active stream sediments from the mineralized Lom Basin has been evaluated. Fifty-five bottom sediments were collected and the mineralogical composition of six pulverized samples determined by XRD. The fine fraction (< 150 µm) was subjected to total digestion (HClO4 + HF + HCl) and analyzed for trace metals using a combination of ICP-MS and AAS analytical methods. Results show that the mineralogy of stream sediments is dominated by quartz (39–86%), phyllosilicates (0–45%) and feldspars (0–27%). Mean concentrations of the analyzed metals are low (e.g. As = 99.40 µg/kg, Zn = 573.24 µg/kg, V = 963.14 µg/kg and Cr = 763.93 µg/kg). Iron and Mn have significant average concentrations of 28.325 and 442 mg/kg, respectively. Background and threshold values of the trace metals were computed statistically to determine geochemical anomalies of geologic or anthropogenic origin, particularly mining activity. Factor analysis, applied on normalized data, identified three associations: Ni–Cr–V–Co–As–Se–pH, Cu–Zn–Hg–Pb–Cd–Sc and Fe–Mn. The first association is controlled by source geology and the neutral pH, the second by sulphide mineralization and the last by chemical weathering of ferromagnesian minerals. Spatial analysis reveals similar distribution trends for Co–Cr–V–Ni and Cu–Zn–Pb–Sc reflecting the lithology and sulphide mineralization in the basin. Relatively high levels of As were concordant with reported gold occurrences in the area while Fe and Mn distribution are consistent with their source from the Fe-bearing metamorphic rocks. These findings provide baseline geochemical values for common and parallel geological domains in the eastern region of Cameroon. Although this study shows that the stream sediments are not polluted, the evaluation of metal composition in environmental samples from abandoned and active mine sites for comparison and environmental health risk assessment is highly recommended.
Geochemical mapping surveys have been conducted in different parts of the world at various scales [1–9]. Although such mapping programmes were developed primarily for geochemical prospecting [10, 11], the same principles and techniques have been expanded to encompass environmental-related issues such as land use planning, agricultural development, environmental monitoring and medical geology [12–17]. The geochemical maps resulting from such surveys show the distribution (background) of the elements analyzed. The term ‘geochemical background’ was first used in exploration geochemistry  and a precise definition is yet to be universally accepted [19–21]. Commonly, background is used interchangeably with baseline or threshold value and may refer to element concentrations in real sample collectives due to natural processes in pristine areas or describe anthropogenic conditions [22, 23]. Considering its spatial and temporal variability, geochemical background represents the natural concentration range of an element in a given environmental medium . Geochemical surveys often target diverse sampling media including rock, soil, sediment, surface water, groundwater, rain, plant and animals, with the aim of providing basic information for policymakers and industry purposes.
Stream sediments have been extensively used as a reliable medium in geochemical mapping investigations because they provide the composite sample of the catchment area upstream of the sampling point [8, 25–30]. This mixture of sediments, rock fragments and soils act not only as an ultimate sink for trace elements derived from within the catchment but are considered as sources of metals based on changes in environmental conditions which could pose pollution problems [31, 32]. Consequently, their geochemical composition is considered to be a representative of the drainage basin geology and an effective proxy for soil and groundwater [14, 33]. Nevertheless, the spatial distribution pattern of elemental levels in sediments is characterized by a high degree of diversity. Such spatial heterogeneity is due to myriad factors including the lithology and size of the basin, weathering processes, hydrological features and land use . The natural weathering of mineral deposits, as well as human activities such as small-scale mining, can result in high concentrations of trace metals in stream sediments [35–37].
Most stream sediments surveys in Cameroon have focused on mineralization and provenance (e.g. [38–43]). Besides, a national geochemical mapping is yet to be implemented in Cameroon like in many countries since it is logistically demanding and considerably expensive. However, a regional geochemical survey can effectively reveal the geochemical characteristics of the sampled medium. In addition, baseline geochemical mapping of a watershed such as the Lom Basin which includes an important mining site is crucial for future environmental assessment. This region is an important prospective area for gold with extensive research having been carried out on the secondary alluvial gold and primary gold mineralization [44–48], soil quality [49, 50] and water quality . On the other hand, there have been no studies on the geochemistry of active bottom sediments for environmental purposes. Thus, the determination of geochemical baseline is fundamental to setting guidelines for environmental management. In fact, geochemical mapping incorporating stream water and stream sediment is a holistic approach to understanding the bulk chemistry and the geochemical processes occurring within this heavily mineralized basin. Accordingly, Mimba et al. [52, 53] investigated the major ion and trace metal geochemistry of stream water in the Lom Basin and reported that the streams were not contaminated in spite of the past and ongoing mining activities.
The present study, therefore, focuses on the mineralogical and geochemical features of stream sediments from the lower Lom Basin. The purpose of this study is: (a) to characterize the mineralogical and trace metal composition of streambed sediments, (b) to evaluate the level of trace element contamination in sediments in comparison to local soils and Sub-Saharan Africa soil composition (c) to identify the sources of trace elements based on spatial distribution.
Regional setting, hydrology and climate
Geological setting and anthropogenic activities
The Lom Basin constitutes part of the Precambrian basement of Cameroon which is divided into two significant lithostructural units; the Congo craton (CC) and the Central African Fold Belt (CAFB) . The CAFB (~ 600 + 700 Ma) also known as the Pan-African belt of central Africa lies between the CC to the south and the Western Nigerian Shield to the north. This domain underlies Chad, Cameroon, Central African Republic and continues to parts of East Africa (Uganda and Sudan) [55, 56]. According to Castaing et al. , the evolution of this belt is due to the convergence and collision between the São Francisco–Congo cratons and the West African Craton, and a Pan-African mobile belt. In Cameroon, the present structure of the Pan-African belt can be attributed to the collision between the West Africa and Congo cratons .
Materials and methods
Sampling and sample preparation
Stream sediments were sampled from lower order streams draining the southeastern part of the Lom Basin, at a density of one sample every 5–10 km (Fig. 1). Sampling was done preferably near stream confluences in order to cover the whole drainage network within the area. During sampling, care was taken to avoid areas of anthropogenic influences. Nonetheless, field observations such as potential sources of contamination, land use, and upstream geology were recorded. A total of 55 active stream sediment samples were collected based on the procedures from Salminen et al. . About 3 kg (to ensure that sufficient fine-grained material would be available for analysis) of the upper layer (0–10 cm) of the stream sediment was collected using a hand trowel. The wet sediment was passed through first, a 300-µm, then 150-µm stainless steel sieves set to obtain the < 150-µm fraction. This retained portion was left to settle out and excess water carefully decanted. The drained < 150-µm fraction of stream sediment was placed in clean pre-labeled polyethylene bags and air dried. Duplicate samples were collected for each site.
In the laboratory, stream sediment samples were rinsed with Milli Q by shaking in an ultrasonic bath for 30 min each. They were then air dried and homogenized. Wet digestion and dissolution protocol (modified from Makishima and Nakamura ) for trace metals in the stream sediment samples was as follows. 0.15 mL of concentrated perchloric acid (60 wt% HClO4) and 0.3 mL of concentrated hydrofluoric acid (60 wt% HF) were added to 0.02 g of the sediment powder in a Teflon plastic bottle. The bottles were tightly capped and agitated in an ultrasonic cleanser for several hours to enhance the dissolution of samples. After complete decomposition, the bottles were uncorked, loaded on a ceramic hot plate and the samples were step-wise dried at 120, 170 and 200 °C, for 6 h at each step. Heating was carried out in a closed system. 0.2 mL of concentrated hydrochloric acid (35–37 wt% HCl) was then added and the bottle was agitated for 2 h to dissolve the degraded sample completely. Finally, the samples were dried at a temperature of 120 °C for 6 h to prevent the formation of iron oxides or hydroxides upon the final addition of nitric acid (HNO3). The samples were dissolved in 25 mL of 0.5 M HNO3 and stored in 50 mL polyethylene bottles for trace metal analysis.
Concentrations of Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Hg, and Pb in the sediments were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) (ThermoScientific), Fe and Mn by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) (contrrAA700) at the Laboratory of Volcanology and Geochemistry in Tokai University, Japan. The geochemical reference samples JA-3, JB-3 and JG-3 (Geological Survey of Japan) were used as standards. Internal standards and blanks were run at regular intervals in the analysis for quality control.
The pH of the stream sediments was measured following the procedure by the International Soil Reference and Information Center (ISRIC) . A 1:2.5 ratio of solid to liquid was used. About 2 g of sediment powder was mixed with 5 mL of Milli Q in Teflon plastic bottles. The bottles were capped and agitated in an ultrasonic bath for 2 h. Prior to pH measurement, the mixture was shaken by hand and the pH of the supernatant suspension was read using a pH meter (LAQUAtwin), previously calibrated with buffer solutions of pH 4 and pH 7.
X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis
The relative abundances of the main silicate and oxide minerals were determined semi-quantitatively on the bulk powder using a D8 ADVANCE TKK Diffractometer with automated divergence slit and monochromatic Cu-Kα radiation (4 kV–20 mV) at the Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry and Material Science in Tokai University, Japan. Powders from 6 pulverised (< 150 µm) representative bottom sediment sub-samples were mounted with a random orientation on an aluminum sample holder. The powder was smoothened using a slide to obtain a uniform level suitable to the X-ray beam. Each sample was scanned from 10° to 80° 2θ with a 0.5 s step. The software BRUKER-binary V4 (.RAW) was used to provide a semi-quantitative estimation of mineral content based on the diffraction patterns.
Multivariate statistical analyses (correlation matrix and factor analysis) were then applied to explore and investigate the data structure, decipher trends and relationship between variables; and infer the underlying factors influencing the stream sediment geochemistry.
Coloured geochemical maps of the data subset were drawn using the ESRI ArcMap 10.2 software package. For interpolation in a grid format, the inverse distance weight (IDW) technique was employed. A maximum of 15 neighboring samples was used for the estimation of each grid point and a power of 2 was chosen to achieve some degree of smoothing. The geochemical data were then classified based on the percentiles 5, 25, 50, 75, 90 and 98% and colour-coded according to this range. Highest concentrations were shown in hot colours while the lowest ranges were shown in cold colours. Also, graduated symbol plots of factor scores of the element associations obtained by factor analysis were produced to examine their relationship with the basin geology.
Results and discussion
Semi-quantitative mineralogical composition of selected stream sediments and representative rock types of the lower Lom Basin
Schists, quartzite, conglomerates
Trace metal content and sediment quality assessment
Summary characteristics of stream sediment geochemical data and Se:Hg ratios in the lower Lom Basin (N = 55)
Geochemical background and threshold values (µg/kg) of stream sediments from the lower Lom Basin alongside local soil and Sub-Saharan ferralsols
This study, background
This study, mean
Local soil (ppm)
Percentage (%) sediment samples exceeding ferrasols
Correlation matrix of trace metals in stream sediments from the lower Lom basin at p < 0.05 (N = 55)
Factor analysis with varimax rotation for 14 trace metals in stream sediments from the lower Lom Basin (N = 55)
Factor 1 accounts for 36.5% of the total variability. This dipolar factor showed high positive loadings for Ni, Cr, V, Co, As, Se and a negative loading for pH. The F1 association showed high and medium factors scores relating to the metamorphic basement of the catchment (Fig. 3a). Sediments derived from granitic rocks and other felsic metasedimentary rocks such as quartzites and amphibolitic schists that make up the Lom basement are known to be poor in V, Cr, Ni, Co, and As [79.] Besides, Co, V and Ni can easily replace Fe in magnetite  which is a major oxide in the ferralitic soils of this tropical basin . The presence of As in this factor is attributable to arsenopyrite dissemination in the parent rocks. Arsenopyrite has been reported as a separate sulphide mineralization event distinct from the main chalcopyrite sulphidation in the study area . The negative contribution of pH in this factor implies that an acidic environment is required for these metals to be released from their geological materials.
A significant proportion of data variability (29.9%) described by Factor 2 is associated with scores of chalcophiles (Cu–Zn–Hg–Pb–Cd) and Sc. High factor scores (> 0) of these elements occur around reported gold indications reflecting sulphide gold-quartz vein mineralization (Fig. 3b). Moreover, previous studies have reported the occurrence of chalcopyrite (Cu), sphalerite (Zn) and galena (Pb) in the underlying rocks of the study area [45, 83]. The negative association of As and chalcophile elements is consistent with the claims that two distinct hydrothermal events are related to the epithermal gold mineralization in the study area . Also, As and Pb have been identified as potential pathfinder elements for gold in the area. The contents and geochemical dispersion haloes of these metals in different lateritic profiles in the area were used to indicate gold mineralization. Arsenic was widely dispersed in soils and considered useful in regional survey while Pb was suited to follow up work . Scandium is likely associated with organic matter. Its small size and high charge favour the formation of stable organic complexes in soils or adsorption on clay minerals derived from the chemical weathering of the granitic rocks .
The manganiferous relationship in factor 3 is a clear indication of the presence of Fe-bearing rocks and the co-precipitation effect. Accordingly, the highest F3 factor scores are located in the area underlain by the volcaniclastic schists and the metasedimentary rocks, quartzites and metaconglomerates (Fig. 3c). Iron and Mn exist as compensating ions on clay complexes and their precipitation is mainly dependent on the pH of the sediments in the catchment . Hence, the poor correlation observed between Fe and Mn and the other trace metals suggests that they do not play a major role in scavenging these elements under near neutral conditions.
Spatial geochemical features
Spatial distributions of high levels of Co, Cr, V and Ni (Fig. 4a–d) cluster in the eastern part and correspond to areas underlain by upper gneisses and granodiorite (Fig. 2). Similarly, As distribution (Fig. 4e) is controlled by the catchment geology even though its concentrations were lower than the calculated threshold (Table 3). Moreover, relatively high concentrations of As coincided with some reported gold occurrences in the area. As previously stated, this observation is in line with the assertion that As is an important pathfinder for gold in this basin .
For the first time, the mineral composition, background values, threshold values and baseline environmental geochemical assessment of stream sediments from the lower Lom Basin have been made available. Mineralogically, quartz, phyllosilicates (muscovite + kaolinite) and feldspars constitute the dominant mineral phases in the sediments. These minerals are derived primarily from the weathering of the complex plutono-metamorphic basement and influenced by hydraulic energy and sorting. In terms of trace metals, concentrations of Sc, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Hg and Pb were low while V, Cr, Co, Ni, Mn and Fe were slightly enriched compared to their calculated threshold values. Overall, the low trace metal content of stream sediments is the result of the interaction of the near neutral pH of sediments (which does not favour the dissolution of metal sulphides), impoverished bedrocks and chemical weathering.
Multivariate statistical techniques enabled us to comprehend the basic processes influencing spatial geochemical variability. The spatial distribution of the trace metals Ni, Cr, V, Co and Se is controlled largely by source geology. Arsenic distribution showed a coherent relationship to the occurrence of Au deposits in some parts of the study area. Mercury, a hazardous environmental pollutant, is released into the basin through its use in gold recovery. Its continued use in refining gold may lead to harmful levels in the sediments.
The results obtained from this study show that the sediments have not been impacted by mining practices. However, given the paucity in fundamental geochemical data in Cameroon, this newly generated stream sediment data will serve as guidelines for future studies (environment, health and agriculture) in the region and other mineralized areas in the country. Future work should include the examination of metal composition in environmental samples from abandoned and active mine sites for comparison and environmental health risk assessment.
Study conception and design: TO, FTA, CES and MEM. Acquisition of data: MEM, SCNF, MTN, NN, TGB. Analysis and interpretation: MEM, SCNF, MTN, NN, TGB. Drafting of manuscript: MEM. Critical revision: MEM, TO, FTA, CES, SCNF, MTN, NN, TGB. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
This research is part of the Ph.D. thesis of MEM and it benefitted financially from the Japan Agency of Science and Technology (JST) through the Japanese Government (MONBUKAGAKUSHO) Scholarship under the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). The authors thank IRGM for providing transportation facilities. All the staff of the Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry and Material Science in Tokai University are truly appreciated for performing the XRD analysis. We extend gratitude to Drs. Asobo Elvis, Vishiti Akumbom for their inspiring suggestions before submission and two anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments which improved the quality of this manuscript.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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